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Andrew Johnson

His life as a pupil at Westminster. Cliques and the effect of the arrival of girls in sixth form. [4.09] Stayed in touch with surprisingly few Westminster schoolmates. [6.21] Phab [experience week in partnership with a charity working with disabled and non-disabled children]. How it has changed over the years. His work gave it more stability, health and safety clearance and financial stability. [10.54] Phab’s expansion over the years, and possible reasons for its growth. [13.54] Difference between his school days and time as a teacher. School now seems better able to help pupils who are less academically gifted than the others. School takes part in more outreach and charity work. School facilities much better. The Manoukian Music Centre, Millicent Fawcett Hall [theatre], Weston’s [classrooms] and Lawrence Hall [sports centre] were all acquired after his schooldays. [16.20] Difficult to tell if there’s been a change in ethos. Still promotes individuality. [18.07] Effects of internet. [19.25] Effects of increased numbers of pupils. [21.28] How his experience of the school has changed now he’s a teacher. [23.06] Will miss colleagues and pupils, but not the physical place. [26.12] His future plans. His move to the London Academy of Excellence. Potential to make a difference to social mobility. How he will interpret the role. [31.11] Proud moments as a pupil. [33.22] Proud moments as a teacher. The changed atmosphere in Ashburnham. The house publication The Ash Tree and house concerts and plays. The house has become a community. Has enjoyed his time as a teacher.

Gavin Griffiths

No strong impulse to go to Westminster. Serendipity rather than conscious plan. Just wanted to leave his school in Wimbledon. [2:07] Sees teaching as a job rather than a career. Accommodation at school meant he had a better lifestyle than he would otherwise have been able to afford, so unable to leave Westminster. [3:50] Enjoyed all his roles in the school. Attempts to prevent him from being Head of English. Without an SMT, it was easier for elderly teachers to put pressure on Head Masters than it is now. [7:05] Ashburnham House Master. Great job. Its location meant it was difficult to get people over there. Supervision of the house had not previously been very thorough. [8:31] Grant’s was fun but very tiring, since it was a boarding house and therefore very long hours. This improved after another boarding house master had a nervous breakdown. [10:18] Far greater parental involvement than before. Can make it more difficult for the children. [12:17] Westminster looks after children better than it used to. More involvement and pastoral support from the House Master now. [13:26] Change in the texts studied. Othello and Lolita now no longer on the syllabus. [18:33] Teachers’ tendency to perform. Used to being the centre of attention. [19:13] Big figures in the Common Room. Ernest Sanger, an Austrian Jew who left Europe before the outbreak of war. Should have been an academic. Theo Zinn, an enormous influence. [21:47] Inspirational teachers can often be the bully as well. [22:29] Common Room 30 years ago. All men apart from one teacher. Smoking and conspiring. An example of plotting against the Head Master, John Rae. [24:21] Improvements to Common Room photocopying during his time as Common Room President. Also finding a helpful Common Room secretary. [27:47] Computers have made some tasks easier but have created more work. Enjoyed teaching in different classrooms when there was more pressure for space. [31:14] Introduction of girls to the school. Frances Holland School didn’t have laboratories, so girls came for the science lessons. It began as an informal arrangement. [32:57] The introduction of girls meant there was more socialising in Yard. House differences became less important. [35:24] Much harder to get into Oxbridge than it used to be. [38:21] The importance of straightforward criticism. [41:24] Theory of the developing intellect. [42:01] Negative effects of child protection policies. More cumbersome now and instructs children to distrust all adults. Morally offensive. [45:20] Miss the 7th term for Oxbridge, when the most difficult topics were tackled, but otherwise the intellectual element of teaching is just as challenging. [46:49] Teachers that he particularly remembers. Russell Dudley-Smith, a polymath. Richard Jacobs, an inspiration as an English teacher. [48:58] The predominance of Maths, the only subject with no moral content. On whether this will continue. [51:43] Advice to teachers joining Westminster. Advice to pupils at Westminster. [54:51] The virtues of conformity or independent thinking. [55:41] Will miss having an audience when he leaves. [56:50] An anecdote about a pupil’s late prep. [58:22] Unsure what he will do after Westminster. Perhaps writing. [1:00:19] Preventing the stripper-gram from accosting John Rae.

Martin Boulton

[0:13] Why interested in teaching. Past teaching experience (Sherbourne) before Westminster, and why drawn to Westminster. Interested in somewhere more academic. Stayed for 12 years. Teaching Physics. House Master of Dryden’s. Didn’t miss having so much marking. [03:20] What defines a Westminster pupil? More demanding. Impolite – students correct mistakes on boards. Asked questions you don’t know the answer to. [04:24] Appointed Under Master. Working with senior management. Dr Spurr ‘runs a tight ship’. Changing of relationship with pupils – have a different view. [06:13] Moving on to Manchester Grammar School to be Headmaster. Different to Westminster. [07:00] Sport at Westminster. Took up climbing, had been a station with 12 pupils. Wanted to raise profile – now has 50 pupils and new climbing wall and expeditions across the world. [08:47] Changes in Westminster across career. More civilised. Pupils more polite. Just as interesting and academic. Now a nicer place to teach. Head Master sets the tone. Societal changes – intake of pupils and where they’re from. Westminster has always reflected the London society. Cosmopolitan. [10:12] Science in the school. Always been strong. Conversations on advanced science in common room at Hooke. Government influence (Michael Gove) pushing STEM subjects, national increase in science. [11:57] Working with the Common Room. Interesting conversations. [13:13] Token memory from Westminster. Experience in class room, teaching bright Remove sets. Ask the questions you want to be asked. Challenging and want to learn. [14:09] Wouldn’t change anything about time here. Never found time boring. Wouldn’t rule out returning. [15:00] How does Manchester compare to Westminster. Used to be pupil at Manchester. Encouraging students to make the most of their talent. [15:55] Involvement with Abbey and Collegiate body. One of the things to miss most. First year as Under Master – met Barack Obama, the Pope, and attended a Royal Wedding. Unexpected. [17:45] Led international applications. US university applications used to be written by hand, ended up writing 30-40 as House Master. Learnt a lot in the experience and used knowledge more widely to help students wanting to go to US universities. More Westminster students may be interested in accessing a wider range of US universities. [19:57] Most controversial time as Under Master? Most testing parts are behind the scenes – disciplinary matters with students or dealing with staff. If done well, no one knows what’s happening. Auction Scandal. Why became a news story. Internships for partner schools. [22:00] Influence of Westminster School on the wider community. Changed in last few years. Westminster House. Growth of civic engagement. Positive change. [23:20] Partnership with Harris Federation. Share expertise in teaching very bright pupils. [24:10] Most miss the once in a lifetime events at the Abbey. Meeting Royal family. Time in the classroom.

Lord Julian Hunt

[00:20] First impressions of Westminster School. [00:38] Masters very nice. Challenge anecdote. [01:09] Day boy in Ashburnham. [01:58] Lushington as form tutor. [02:12] Leaving to have operation. Away for a long time. [02:50] Couldn’t play football. Lots of swimming instead. [03:10] Commute from Putney. [03:30] Masters. John Morton Wilson. Latin prose. [04:30] Enjoyed science. [05:04] Cyril John Crumpler, science Master. Mr Foxcroft. [05:35] Another pupil by the name of Hunt, connecting water tap to gas tap. Fire brigade called. [06:18] Experiments. [06:30] False roof up school. Latin prayers. [07:07] Walter Hamilton. Greek. [07:48] Joined the Corps. War still felt close. [08:10] Mr Brock, housemaster of Ashburnham. Telling stories of war. [08:50] Demonstrations at Hyde Park Corner on Sundays. [09:05] Art teacher. Mr Spore. Wanted to talk about naval history. [09:42] Francis Rause, housemaster of Busby’s. Major in war. Told stories, told back to him in House play at the end of term. [11:10] Matthew Orr, played piano in Busby’s. [11:52] Boys climbing lifts in Busby’s. Used later while stuck in lift in France. [13:22] Noel Picarda, used to go up to Hyde Park Corner with collar back to front and give mock religious sermons. [14:15] Talks at political literary (John Locke) society. C.P. Snow, speaking about Russia. Ted Heath. [16:32] Choice of science. [16:43] Dropped Greek to do science, mother horrified. [16:55] 3 In Maths Sixth. 27 in Classics. [17:25] College scholars primarily classicists. [17:49] Theo Zinn classicist. Did music appreciation. [18:40] Classists saw themselves as the elite in the school. Seemed to be the way things were, no real resentment. [19:45] Labs in Sutcliffe’s on Great College Street. Nothing to compare them to. Not pristine, didn’t feel like it was a disaster to take risks. [20:40] Slide rules for calculations. [21:08] Lack of health and safety. No safety glasses. [21:30] Not too much building work. Felt done. Dorms of 17 in Busby’s. Throwing slippers. [22:15] Fagging. Appalling. Abolished at sixth form. Busby’s first house to do so. [22:44] Sixth formers only ones to use the lift. As prefect, let everyone. [23:40] Football. C.C.P. Williams. Broke a window in Vincent Square. Westminster not particularly successful in sport. Played Chelsea Colts once a year. [25:20] Sanger. Playing cricket. [25:50] Walter Hamilton. Left for Rugby. John Carleton’s takeover. Didn’t have the respect Hamilton had. [26:55] Confirmation, conversation with Head Master. [28:05] Respect for Walter Hamilton. Strong character. Carleton charming, liked by parents. Not by students. Surprising Westminster did as well as it did under him. [29:25] Lushington speaking after Carleton in staff meetings. [30:33] Fisher, teaching mathematics. Had been a bas headmaster of Busby’s, but good teacher of mathematics. Wanted students to go to Cambridge, measured progress by it. Deterministic. Connecting mathematics to the world. [32:27] Adolph Prag. Helped with archives. From Germany. Mathematics as patterns and logic and beauty. Class of three, later four. Had to explain proof on blackboard. [33:35] Henry Christie, master of the scholars. Keen on rowing. [34:05] Reading divorce cases in the Daily Telegraph. Westminster handled change easily. [35:10] Going to parliament. Concerts at Festival Hall. [35:48] Strength of connection between Westminster and Trinity. 10 boys in same year passed up to Trinity. Not much of a Westminster society there. [36:55] Went to Trinity to follow footsteps of grandfather and uncle. [37:20] Dan McKenzie most brilliant in year. One of the discoverers of continental drift. Divinity class. Dan state disbelief in God ‘because I am a scientist’. Became Cambridge professor and Fellow of Royal Society. [40:42] Science as a group. Keeley, gave classes in Urdu. [42:05] Science education post-Westminster. Dropped Greek. Science was a way of connecting things together. Royal Institute lectures. Felt inferior to scientists, decided to go into engineering. [43:45] At Cambridge. Engineering as ‘mechanical sciences’. PhD. More interested in environmental matters. Turbulent flows. Supposed to go to America, but met wife and didn’t want to leave her behind. [47:00] In America during Vietnam war. March on Washington. Science and politics. [48:18] Most Old Westminsters had standard careers. [51:22] The usefulness of scientific ideas. [53:10] More public understanding of science. More media coverage. [56:00] Much wider range of A Levels now, less specialised. [56:40] Far more pupils doing science at A Level. [57:10] Changes in science teaching. Less time to just experiment. Broader syllabus now, but strictly organised. [01:00:05] St Paul’s closest UK comparison to Westminster. Special. [01:10:18] Westminster very institutional. Used to it. Boarding school from the age of nine or ten. One younger brother enjoyed it, but youngest did not.

John Corsellis

[00:24] Background. Father was barrister, served in First World War and keen pilot; died flying in 1930. Two older sisters, went to Francis Holland. Brother to Winchester. Corsellis to Westminster. [04:14] Prep School at St. Clare’s, Walmar, Kent. About 40 boys. Taught Latin and Greek. Encouraged to try for Westminster. Timid and nervous. [05:48] Put in for the Challenge a year early and failed, tried again and failed and admitted as Town Boy as a Homeboarder. [07:01] Head boy of St. Clare’s. Reading lesson in Chapel – good training in public speaking. Disciplinary authorities and responsibilities. [08:13] Went from ‘big fish’ at Prep School to ‘lowest of the low’ at Public School. [08:24] Joined Westminster September 1936. [08:38] Two uncles had been to Westminster. In awe of the school. [09:35] Friendly school. Proud of Westminster School. [10:02] Started at Westminster living at the northern end of Baker Street. Walk to school in top hat and tail coat through the parks. Enjoyed the attention. [11:12] Family moved to Brighton. Commuted for a term on a daily basis. [11:44] Didn’t enjoy football or cricket matches at Prep School. Became a scorer – went with first XI to away matches, got to enjoy the food, ‘felt nice and important’. [12:38] Westminster offered fencing instead. ‘Tiny claim to fame at Westminster’ with fencing. Clerihew ‘Corsellis / rhymes with trellis / Hence / Fence’. [15:30] Fencing in Little Dean’s Yard when weather was nice. Fenced over the graves of the monks in the cloisters. Old Gym when the weather was bad. Armory garden, Ashburnham Garden? [17:14] Distinguished French fencing instructor. No electric scoring. Didn’t have to do football, cricket or water for fencing. [18:40] Left-handed. Was made to write right-handed. Disorientates right-handed fencers used to fighting right-fencers. Successful. Made school team. Public Schools Championship – first in foils, second in épée. [20:30] Beginning of first term, new intake congregate in Yard and addressed by master in charge of Corps. Gave patriotic speech. Alternatives – Scouts or gym. [22:15] Influence of brother. ‘Mildly disrespectful of authority’, advised not to do Corps. Opted for Gym. Learning to vault and parallel bars. [23:40] Conscious of war. Pacifist tendencies. Aunt ‘militant pacifist’, role model. [25:25] Westminster ‘evangelical, in the wider sense’. John Christie, Head Master, as ‘striking preacher’. Classics Master as pacifist, left school when the war started, ‘presence not very desirable’. Not characteristic of a normally tolerant Westminster. [27:45] Three contemporaries from College joined Friend’s Ambulance Unit (FAU). William Barnes; nickname ‘Bishop’, strong personality but liked and respected, became head boy. [29:57] Norman John Peppin Brown; became Professor of Philosophy in Canada; Catholic. [31:00] Donald Swann; musical, same election as Corsellis, went to Oxford. [31:38] Left Westminster, entered into articles with a lawyer in Oxford. Apprentice, didn’t need a degree. ‘Paid for the privilege of being a trainee in a lawyer’s firm’. One or two years of part time lectures at university. [33:24] Would meet up with Swann while both in Oxford, in British Restaurant for ‘awful meals, quite cheaply’, or two own sandwiches. Got to know Swann’s father, grew up in Russia until the revolution. [36:58] Advise Swann of FAU. Both ended in the same camp in the Cadbury Estate in Birmingham, six weeks of training. Converted stables for recruits, help to toughen up. [38:52] Both sent to ‘training hospital’ Guy’s Hospital in Orpington. Had been Canadian military hospital in First World War, ‘geriatrics hospital’ between wars. Converted to sector hospital to move patients out of London. Swann, Bill Mann (ended up music critic of the Times), Douglas Harvey. [41:08] Hospital porters, used as ward orderlies.

Hugh Bedford

[00:28] Family’s relationship to Westminster school. Five members at Westminster, starting in 1870s. Rev. Edwin Curtis Bedford. Francis Donkin Bedford. David Edwin Wyatt Bedford. Felix Hugh Wyatt Bedford – father; very involved with the school, member of Masonic Lodge, at school with Kim Philby. 1950s. [03:15] Attend Ashburnham himself. Large number of new boys. Fagging. [04:28] Monitors. Substance and shadow. [04:50] Had to pass test after two weeks – names of houses, house ties, slang, etc. [05:35] Not much to do with monitors. Hierarchy, work way up. Progressed through school years. [06:24] Fagging. Practical tasks, but some to demonstrate authority. Changed over time. [07:18] Ashburnham moving from Little Dean’s Yard next to Busby’s to Dean’s Yard. Not disruptive for pupils. [08:20] Isolating being away from heart of the school. Always something going on in Little Dean’s Yard. Didn’t spend a lot of time in the house. [10:02] Denison Brock housemaster. Approachable. Ran a good house. See once a month to go through marks. [11:20] Post war construction. O Level exams at army drill hall because of damage to School and work being done to the shell. [13:02] Queen’s visit 1960. CCF inspection by the Duke of Gloucester. Ron French in charge of CFF; extensive preparations for inspection in Vincent Square. Marching on grass. [14:18] CCF or Scouts compulsory. First year go on trips when Corps took place (Tate, British Museum, etc,). [15:14] Saturday Mornings go to Robert Mayer concerts at the Royal Festival Hall. [16:22] South Bank. New. Made an impression. Good introduction to music. [17:00] Not a musician, not involved in music within the school. Hilary John Davan Wetton at Ashburnham, became conductor. John Phillip Arnold playing cello. Arnold Foster in charge of music. [18:15] Art. Leslie Spaull, art master. Great enthusiast. One lesson a week. [19:00] Art department in Ashburnham house. [20:14] Form Master Andrew John Moyes. Young teacher. [20:50] Memories of Mr Moylan, Latin teacher. Strict. Charge for lateness or disobedience. Good teacher of Latin. Weekly test – moved table based on marks. Alan Charles Nelson Borg in top three. [23:58] Edward Craven, sixth form Latin teacher. Could be distracted to talk about convoy work in the war. Post-war teachers out of the army. Mr Rogers and Mr Woodhouse, young masters, went on to be Head Masters. [26:15] Most people didn’t talk about their army service. Knew nothing of Denny Brock’s service. Outward bound trips. Corps camp – tent commander Corin Redgrave. [28:06] Mr Moylan as careers master. Weak career advice, no sense of what post-school life was like. Hard to go from school to bank. Unprepared. [29:20] Why choose to work in bank. Wanted to be in city. Uncle working at the bank – enthusiastic. Didn’t go to university. Most from Westminster sixth form didn’t go. Seventh form usually went. [30:48] Scientist at Westminster. Decided late on to go to bank. Structure of school useful. [32:28] Women working in the bank, not used to. [33:38] Science teaching good. Mr Crumpler, Mr Foxcroft, Mr Stokoe. Not so charismatic. [34:28] Science in Great College Street. New laboratories. Lecture theatre. [35:35] Hierarchy of scientists and classicists changing. Would have preferred to be a historian. [37:08] Colin Bird, also in Ashburnham. Went into Bank of England on the same day. Still friends. Went into Modern Languages. [38:35] House events. Sport; did quite a lot. Not many social events. Eating lunch together in Ashburnham, others eating in College Hall. Seating by hierarchy. [41:30] Cricket. Had played at prep school. House cricket and colts team. David Roy, new boy, in first eleven by second year. Better at football. [44:21] Clever members of Ashburnham. Dan Peter McKenzie (AA). Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. World expert on Earthquakes and volcanoes. Anthony Leslie Vogle, actor. Michael Brough, microsurgery. [45:45] Only played football until 16. Played at Grove Park. Squash played by those who couldn’t play anything else. Theo Zinn. [47:30] School good at fencing. Alan Borg. [48:16] Food. Roast beef and potatoes. Puddings. Better than at prep school. [49:30] Ashburnhamite family. House bond important. [50:00] Conscious of school before joining. Taken to matches. Entrance exam and interviewed by the Head Master. Walter Hamilton. [50:50] No contact with Walter Hamilton. Distant figure. John Carleton, taught English in classroom up School. Markham room. [51:55] Promotion of Under Master. Talk higher up the school and other Masters. Would have been better to have someone in from outside with new ideas. [52:55] No real changes within the school with change of Head Master. [53:18] No real contact with Head Master in the sixth form. Never went into any of the other houses. Over other side of Dean’s Yard. Went into Wren’s classrooms. [54:55] School ties. Ashburnham ties were blue. Rigaud’s orange. Pinks. Didn’t wear a full pink tie, but ‘out of season’ pink ties. First eight wearing full pinks to Henley. Awarded house tie for contributing to house, mostly for sport. One house tie, no junior and senior. [58:42] Long distance race in athletics. Between Barnes and Putney. Bringsty Relay on Wimbledon Common. [51:47] Standards competition. Points for athletics performance, house totals added up. Junior and senior cup. Grant’s often winning. [01:00:43] Roger Givan. Rigaud’s runner. Under 16 champion. Denny Brock keen on house events. Singing competitions. [01:02:05] House singing. Sung as group. Mix of songs. Every house has a choir. Held up School. Individual instrument pieces. [01:03:20] No house concert. Music now on a higher profile. [01:04:00] Teaching done in Wren’s and beside Ashburnham house. [01:05:05] Gym. Now moved from cloisters. [01:10:43] First boy ever to go to Westminster from that Prep School.

John Corsellis

[00:25] Move from Homeboarders to College. Two uncles went to Westminster: Philip Manley Bendall and Geoffrey Skeat Manley Bendall. Knew ‘D J Knight’ – teacher or housemaster? (Housemaster of Homeboarders 1929-1936) [01:35] Started in Homeboarders. Allowed to take Challenge a third time once in the school. [02:08] Didn’t believe self to be academically gifted, but was well-behaved and conscientious. Got bottom place in College. [02:42] Big change. Started to board. Had been commuting from Brighton. [03:20] Used to boarding – had boarded at Prep School. ‘Laid-back’ culture in late 1930s Westminster. [03:48] Dormitory one large room. 18th century building. High ceiling. Divided up with wooden panelling into 40 cubicles. [04:55] ‘Degree of promiscuity’, boys sneaking into each other’s cubicles. Too ‘law-abiding’ and frightened to get involved. [05:40] Don’t remember being cold. [06:03] Monitors try to maintain order. Didn’t always succeed. Did lots of reading with a torch at night. John Mason Whiskard in next cubicle. Richard Geoffrey Whiskard, older brother. Was a monitor, Corsellis was his fag. Involved almost nothing. Gave Corsellis inscribed copy of ‘Oxford Book of English Verse’ on leaving the school. Was a role model: ‘modest, decent, fair’. Father was a senior civil servant. [08:50] Tasks as a fag. Whiskard was part of the editorial team of the Elizabethan, Corsellis kept a record of their contemporaries. Doesn’t remember preparing food or drinks. [10:45] Latin Play, still in College Dormitory each year. Never even considered for a part. ‘Soft spot for Terence and Plautus’. Matter of considerable excitement. One year attended by the King and Queen. [13:20] Disruptive effect on normal school life, but ‘most enjoyably’. No one annoyed by it. Prologue and Epilogue great fun. [14:50] Felt involved even though didn’t appear. Roped in to help support. [17:05] School felt like a place full of radical ideas and debate. [17:45] Head Master Costley White, ended up Dean of Gloucester. Pompous. ‘Losing his grip’. Governors decided a strong hand was needed afterwards. John Traill Christie followed. Corsellis ‘hero-worshipped him’ as a boy. Exercised authority. [22:00] Doing gym instead of joining the OTC. Discovered fencing. So few fencers, it was easy to be a high achiever. [23:00] Stand out teachers: Peebles (maths). Hillary (history), good role model. Godfrey-Barber (Classics), organiser of the Scouts, Pacifist, eased out of the school. DC Simpson (Master of the King’s Scholars, Classics Master), approachable and kind. Claridge (Modern Languages, school librarian), ‘feud’ with John Bow. [17:45] Christie as a ‘striking preacher’, good projection. Would have been unfavourable for anyone anti-authoritarian. [28:45] Pacifist leanings even when joining the school. Encouraged by the virtues of Christianity in Christie’s preaching (non-intentional) – Christ seemed to be a pacifist. [29:48] Four pacifists in College. William Barnes, became head boy, ‘striking character’, joined Friends Ambulance Unit. Donald Swann. [31:15] Could argue Friends Ambulance Unit to be a ‘logical extension of Westminster’. Contemporary Norman John Peppin Brown, ended up Catholic philosopher in Canada. Corsellis recruited Swann, possibly Brown, for the FAU. [32:32] John Christie, first Lay head master since Camden, yet remembered for his preaching. Charismatic teacher. ‘Put the fear of God in one’. High standards, intolerant of poor performance. [35:12] Felt like Christie was trying to change Westminster – wanted to introduce more discipline. Some boys resented him for it. Culture of staff common room was already strong. [38:10] Could attend debates in the Houses of Parliaments. [38:48] Not the only good fencer- Pears Brothers (Michael Andrew Pears and David Francis Pears) were excellent fencers. [41:30] Kim Philby (Harold Adrian Russell Philby). Had been aware of his father, reviewed a book of his in the Elizabethan. [42:08] Also produced ‘pillars of the establishment’, like Sir William Deakin (Frederick Wilham Dampier Deakin). [42:24] Westminster in the 1930s was particularly outward-looking. Speakers came in to school. Not there when Gandhi came. Poets. Active literary society. Felt in the centre of things and not cut off. [44:40] Paul de Labilliere, Dean of Westminster. Lovely man. Corsellis went back to Little Dean’s Yard to visit someone after leaving and was invited in for tea at the Deanery. Gallery of Westminster Abbey. [46:15] Abbey a big part of school life. Taken for granted as the school chapel. [47:18] Sang in Bach chorale. Couldn’t sing in tune, but volume was too great for anyone to notice. ‘Marvellous feeling’ performing in the Abbey. [48:05] Was at school when coronation happened, but as Town Boy. Watched procession. Probably saw more of it than the boys in the Abbey, juniors were right at the back and didn’t see anything. [49:15] Ceremonies in the Abbey. Very much part of life. Privileged. School gym. [51:05] Meals in College Hall. Food wasn’t particularly good, even before the war started. [52:00] Women at the school. Matron, allowed the boys to listen to Bach symphonies on the radio in College. [53:10] Suffered from appendicitis. Taken to private hospital looking over Vincent Square. Head Master’s wife (Lucie Christie) came to visit, shared books - 17th century literature. [54:12] Being at school when the war broke out. Evacuated to Lancing just before Munich Agreement was signed. Happy memories of Lancing College, especially scenery. Bitterly cold and fairly spartan. [55:55] Allowed back to Westminster for a brief period. Evacuated to Exeter. Mother decided he would leave the school early, get more practical training experience. Not expected to succeed in competition for scholarships for Oxford or Cambridge and wouldn’t have been able to afford to go without one. Left school and articled to a lawyer at Oxford. [57:50] Shorthand typing course at age 18. Could touch-type and write shorthand. [58:30] Atmosphere among pupils being evacuated. Positive. Challenge. ‘Closed ranks and got on with it’. Learned basic first aid. Fire watching. Most of the boys contemplating post-school life – wanted to do a year at university before being called up. Closer to the teachers. Greater feeling of team spirit. Conscious that it was a big job for the teaching staff to cope. Would Westminster survive at all? [01:01:15] Survival of school in debt to JT Christie. [01:01:58] Partly integrated into Lancing college when evacuated – shared activities. Own identity still preserved. [01:29:56] Staff make conscious effort to preserve Westminster identity. [01:03:25] War felt inevitable, boys were aware. Boys with family members in Europe. [01:05:45] Doesn’t remember talking about the war on a personal level with others boy. Kept a low profile. Aware there were a number of pacifists. Unaware William Barnes was a pacifist at the time, but knew Donald Swann was. [01:07:40] Pick up from where left off with first interview. Orpington, working as a hospital orderly. Classical education in Latin and Greek and adequate knowledge of French and German proved useful. After Orpington, spent time as nurse in state hospital. Spoke German to patients, including a fanatical Nazi who was refusing blood transfusions out of worry his ‘Aryan blood would be sullied’. Little chance of surviving. [01:10:45] Sent to headquarters as personal assistant to Whitworth (Old Etonian), who was planning the to assist refugees that would be created as Allied armies made their way through Europe. Dealt with policy correspondence. [01:11:55] FAU ran a training centre in Hampstead in an old house. 12 week training courses. Corsellis didn’t attend, but dealt with teaching material so learnt from that. [01:12:35] Sent abroad. Two months in Egypt, one month in refugee camp for 25,000 Yugoslavian refugees from Dalmatian coast. Teams of 8-10 relief workers. One interpreter liaison officer. Needed to learn Serbo-Croat, found book for Italians wanting to learn Serbo-Croat. Latin and French education made Italian easy, so taught self Italian and simultaneously learned Serbo-Croat. Quickly acting as interpreter. [01:12:14] Went on to Italy, developed fluent Italian. Up to Austria. Camp for 20,000 Yugoslav refugees. Sent on own to translate. Neighbouring camp in next field, 12,000 Yugoslav refugees from Slovenia, part of anti-communist resistance movement, had been involved in Civil War. Political advisor to army decided they were a problem, told would be sent down to Italy. Intention was to send them back to Yugoslavia under agreement with Yugoslavian authorities. Brutally massacred by the communists. Sent back by deceit and threat of force. Wrote book about it, finally achieved a kind of apology from the British government. [01:23:58] Book published in Slovenia. Outselling Harry Potter. Inspired/encouraged a Slovenian writer to write fictionalised book on the subject, with Corsellis-based character as hero. [01:27:45] Other claim to fame – published poetry of his brother from Second World War. [01:30:40] After the war, worked for 13 (ran for 10) for Education Interchange Council, wanting to open up exchanges with ‘ex-enemy countries’ and then with Communist countries (biggest danger of being opponents in a third world war at the time). Told not to become a modern languages specialist at school, but had since learned many in line of work. Good classical education was good preparation.

Michael Garnett and Will Stevens

[0:30] Joined Under School 1988, up School in 1993. Wren’s and Grant’s, didn’t board. Slept on people’s floors occasionally. Enjoyed breakfast and supper – incentives to stay the night. Boarded during A Levels – came to arrangement with Busby’s House Master. Didn’t want to go home and get asked how exams were doing. [3:00] Carvings. In the Remove. Sense of crescendo. About to break up for half term, had come to same idea. Commemorative things being planned. Plans around Little Dean’s Yard from lots of students. [04:20] Weekday night, got up 1 or 2 in the morning. Staying in the Dungeons in Head Boy’s room. Eddie Smith, Deputy Head, ‘fierce policer’ on patrol. Had to coordinate. Midnight? Would have had more chimes to strike chisel. [06:04] No gate to Dean’s Yard. Laxer security. No key codes on doors. Jumped wall. Preferable to put names on main arch, but needed to be hidden from Little Dean’s Yard. Gate to School locked at night. Took tools and provisions. [07:26] Previous prank. Busby’s students ‘abseil’ into Common Room through window. Take packets of prawns, hide around Common Room. Started to rot three and a half weeks later. Boys had worn ‘SAS black ninja suits’. Garnett and Stevens inspired by dress. [08:55] Meticulous about preparation. Took an elastic band to hold Maglite. Did art and experienced in manual work, but little stone work experience. Garnett practised on red brick in father’s garden. First time carving on ‘proper stone’. [10:52] Showed other people, word got around. Returned many years later, Bursar hadn’t known it had been done. [11:55] Other things going on that night, detracted from the carving. Door slamming and shrieking all night. Spraying silver graffiti in Little Dean’s Yard. Sound of scraping stone above – got porcelain toilet up to corner of the Old Library, above Burlington Arch. Affixed to stone with ‘industrial cement’. [14:40] Chiselling too loud. Brought a mallet, but couldn’t use. Bought chisels from Tottenham Court Road and wrapped in cotton wool and tape so could strike chisels with palms of hands. Still loud – covered by noise of Big Ben’s chimes. Increased as the night went on. Resorted to scraping, not traditional technique. Finished at half five in the morning. Gloves in tatters, bleeding knuckles. [16:50] Took masking tape, chalk, and printed out ‘MG’ in Times New Roman. Marked out between parallel lines. Took rubber to rub out chalk. Stevens’ not marked out. [17:57] Eddie Smith summoned Stevens to office. Had discovered. Stevens’ name was removed. Attempted four initials while Garnett did two. Had planned MG 99 but ran out of time. No punishment. [19:35] Post-Westminster. Garnett to Cambridge, to reach Architecture. Stevens to Ruskin School of Art. Read about ‘night climbing’ tradition, tried some out. Inspired by name carving. [21:50] Post Westminster. Garnett working as architect. Stevens painter, studio in Paddington, in gothic church crypt. Odd jobs. [23:22] Told Andrew Bateman, art teacher. Would have been far easy to carve when originally laid as far softer, but had hardened over time.

Jeffrey Eker

Westminster Under School restarted in 1943 in Grant’s, when the Great School was evacuated. Joined the Great School in 1945, when it was back in London. [1:10] A day boy. Lived above Baker Street station. School still finding its feet being back in London. There were barrage balloons and anti-aircraft guns in Vincent Square. Rationing of food and clothing. [2:52] He entered via the 4th form, which no longer exists. [3:43] Weekly form orders, when the pupils were ordered according to their marks the previous week. A very competitive atmosphere. Moved up two years due to his academic promise. [4:29] Took the School Certificate at 14. [5:00] Maundy money prizes and book tokens. [6:06] Physical training in Little Dean’s Yard in the morning. [7:10] The war was very traumatic for him, as a Jew. He was excused going to religious services, although some other Jewish boys did go. Was allowed to be away from school for the major Jewish religious holidays. He was an atheist. [8:42] The Under School evacuated for 4 weeks when the flying bombs came to London. [10:22] School numbers were very low when he arrived. No more than 220 boys. [11:05] Greaze took place in the roofless School. [12:52] Memorable Masters. W. F. Monk, an inspiring teacher. Dr Burch, who had no control over his class at all. [14:55] No bullying, and corporal punishment was very rare. [17:03] Enjoyed rowing. [18:05] His mother and siblings were sent to America in June 1940 by his father, because they were Jewish. His father probably thought he was never going to see them again. [18:50] Father came to England in 1911. Landed at Tower Pier, penniless and not speaking the language. First job was in Petticoat Lane, selling fabric off a barrel. Ended up with a textile business. [20:36] Knew he was going into business but didn’t tell anyone at school. [21:46] Brother went to Westminster when it was evacuated, and had a totally different impression of the school. Felt that the Housemaster was a bully and an anti-Semite. Jeffrey felt no anti-Semitism at all when he was there. [22:27] Saw the first meeting of the committee that set up the United Nations, which took place in Church House in 1944. Boys felt they were at the centre of the world. [23:47] Went into his father’s business after school. Sold the business and retired at 57. [24:29] Was in Ashburnham House, but there wasn't much house spirit. Felt more a member of the school than his house.

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